Articles are sorted in order of publication with the most recent articles at the top.

Scleromyxoedema in a dog

Laprais AF, Bizikova P, Lashnits EW, et al. Vet Dermatol 2017;28:503-e119. BACKGROUND: In humans, scleromyxoedema is a chronic progressive skin condition traditionally characterized by deposits of mucin, increased number of fibroblasts and fibrosis in the skin, and by systemic disease. … Read More

Thyroglossal Duct Carcinoma in a Cat

Moorer JD, Breshears MA, Dugat DR.  J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2016;52:251-255. A 14 yr old castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for a fluid-filled structure in the ventral cervical region that had been present for 1 yr and had not … Read More

Genetics of Endocrine Disease in Dogs and Cats

Davidson LJ. in Conference Proceedings. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016. INTRODUCTION Observations that certain endocrine diseases occur more commonly in certain breeds of dog and cat have long suggested that genetic predispositions to disease exist. Examples of this … Read More

Etiopathogenesis of Feline Hyperthyroidism

Syme H. in Conference Proceedings. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016. Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy of middle-aged and older cats. Although it was not recognised as a clinical entity until the late 1970s it is now very … Read More

Cytological Examination of the Endocrine Glands

Bertazzolo W. Cytological Examination of the Endocrine Glands In: Dunn J, ed. Manual of Diagnostic Cytology of the Dog and Cat. First ed. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, 2014;195-212. Cytological examination of endocrine tissues in dogs and cats is … Read More

Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine

Daniel GB, Neelis DA. Semin Nucl Med 2014;44:24-34. Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in … Read More

Ex Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1hmrs) Of Normal, Reactive And Malignant Canine Lymph Nodes: Evaluation Of The Choline Metabolite As A Marker For Malignancy

Lynch KC, Odintsov BM, O’Brien RT. in Conference Proceedings. American College of Veterinary Radiology 2013;34. Introduction/Purpose: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging is widely utilized in veterinary medicine to critically evaluate soft tissue structures in disease states. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy CHMRS) … Read More

Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter in tenterfield terriers

Dodgson SE, Day R, Fyfe JC. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26:1350-1357. BACKGROUND: A cluster of cases of congenital hypothyroidism with goiter (CHG) in Tenterfield Terriers was identified and hypothesized to be dyshormonogenesis of genetic etiology with autosomal recessive inheritance. OBJECTIVES: … Read More

Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia

Bergman PJ. Top Companion Anim Med 2012;27:156-158. Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are neoplasm-associated alterations in bodily structure or function or both that occur distant to the tumor. They are an extremely diverse group of clinical aberrations that are associated with the … Read More

Lymphocytic hypophysitis in a dog with diabetes insipidus

Meij BP, Voorhout G, Gerritsen RJ, et al. J Comp Pathol 2012;147:503-507. An 8-year-old male German longhaired pointer was referred for diabetes insipidus responsive to treatment with desmopressin. The dog had polyuria and polydipsia, exercise intolerance and a dull hair … Read More

Serum TSH in hyperthyroid cats pre- and post therapy

Otero T, Archer J, Billings H, et al. Proceedings of the European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine—Companion Animals Congress 2002;173. Feline hyperthyroidism can be difficult to diagnose. Sensitive TSH assays are used to diagnose this condition in humans. The aim … Read More

Thyroid disorders in the geriatric veterinary patient

Scott-Moncrieff JC. The Veterinary clinics of North America Small animal practice 2012;42:707-725, vi-vii. The effects of age, concurrent illness, and administered medications complicate diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in geriatric patients. Interpretation of thyroid hormone testing should take these factors into … Read More

Evaluation of expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet derived growth factor receptors-alpha and -beta, KIT, and RET in canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma

Urie BK, Russell DS, Kisseberth WC, et al. BMC Vet Res 2012;8:67. ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Toceranib phosphate (Palladia) has a reported objective response rate of 25% in both canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) and thyroid carcinoma (TC), with stable … Read More

Pharmacological evidence that spinal alpha(2C)- and, to a lesser extent, alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors inhibit capsaicin-induced vasodilatation in the canine external carotid circulation

Villalon CM, Galicia-Carreon J, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, et al.  Eur J Pharmacol 2012;683:204-210. During a migraine attack capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), producing cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation and abort … Read More

Silent pituitary corticotroph carcinoma in a young dog

Gestier S, Cook RW, Agnew W, et al.  Journal of comparative pathology 2012;146:327-331. An 11-month-old neutered female weimaraner was humanely destroyed 6 days after an acute onset of neurological signs. At necropsy examination the pituitary gland was replaced by a … Read More

Nuclear Imaging In Veterinary Endocrinology

Daniel G. in Conference Proceedings. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2012;700-702. Scintigraphic studies are used in veterinary medicine to image thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreatic diseases. By far, the most common of these studies is thyroid scintigraphy. Thyroid scintigraphy … Read More

A systematic review of the safety of potassium bromide in dogs

Baird-Heinz HE, Van Schoick AL, Pelsor FR, et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:705-715. Objective-To critically evaluate and summarize available information on the safety of potassium bromide in dogs. Design-Systematic review. Sample-111 references reporting safety information relevant to potassium … Read More

Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs

Kohler B, Stengel C, Neiger R. J Small Anim Pract 2012;53:182-184. Objectives: Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Method: Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated … Read More

Thyroid and parathyroid glands

Taeymans O. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands In: Barr F,Gashen L, eds. Manual of Canine and Feline Ultrasonography. Gloucester, UK: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2011;193-197.

Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: A review

Bojanic K, Acke E, Jones B.  N Z Vet J 2011;59:115-122. Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs … Read More

Ectopic cervical thymic carcinoma in a dog

Faisca P, Henriques J, Dias TM, et al. J Small Anim Pract 2011;52:266-270. A 10-year-old male German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cranial cervical mass causing progressively worsening respiratory distress. A fine-needle aspirate of the mass was … Read More

Canine hypothyroidism: A review of aetiology and diagnosis

Mooney C. N Z Vet J 2011;59:105-114. Hypothyroidism is recognised as an important endocrine disorder of dogs, and a frequent differential for numerous presenting complaints. Its diagnosis has never been straight forward as results suggestive of hypothyroidism can occur for … Read More

Use of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in cats

Wakeling J. Can Vet J 2010;51:33-34. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is routinely used for the diagnosis of thyroid disease in humans and dogs, but measurement of feline TSH is not routinely performed because a commercial feline TSH assay is … Read More

Trilostane in dogs

Ramsey IK. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40:269-283. Over the last 10 years, trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of steroid synthesis, is being widely used for the treatment of canine hyperadrenocorticism. Trilostane causes a significant but reversible decrease in … Read More

Insulin resistance in dogs

Hess RS. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40:309-316. In diabetic dogs, many concurrent diseases can cause resistance to exogenous insulin. The most common concurrent disorders in diabetic dogs are hyperadrenocorticism, urinary tract infection, acute pancreatitis, neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. … Read More

Multiple distinct malignancies in dogs: 53 cases

Rebhun RB, Thamm DH. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2010;46:20-30. Despite the clinical recognition of multiple distinct types of neoplasia in individual dogs, a detailed description of such cases has not recently been published. Canine oncology cases that were diagnosed … Read More

Endocrine diseases in animals

Kooistra HS, Galac S, Buijtels JJ, et al. Horm Res 2009;71 Suppl 1:144-147. BACKGROUND: Several endocrine disorders that affect humans also occur as endocrinopathies in companion animals. Spontaneous endocrine disorders in animals may provide valuable information for their counterparts in … Read More

Etiopathologic findings of canine hypothyroidism

Graham PA, Refsal KR, Nachreiner RF. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:617-631, v. The causes of canine hypothyroidism are varied, but most cases result from irreversible acquired thyroid pathologic changes and only a small proportion arise from congenital … Read More

Cardiovascular and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism

Syme HM. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:723-743, vi. In the simplest terms, hyperthyroidism is the clinical syndrome that results from an excess of thyroid hormones. This review considers the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular and renal … Read More

Calcium homeostasis in thyroid disease in dogs and cats

Schenck PA. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:693-708, vi. Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of cats, and hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of dogs. Little is known regarding the effects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or … Read More

Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats

Barber LG. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:755-773, vii. The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to … Read More

Thyroid surgery in dogs and cats

Radlinsky MG. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:789-798, viii. Thyroid surgery is indicated for malignant and benign neoplasms or hyperplasia of the thyroid glands. A ventral midline cervical approach allows for bilateral thyroid exploration. Care should be taken … Read More

Testing for hypothyroidism in dogs

Ferguson DC. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:647-669, v. Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy in the dog. Rather than being a comprehensive review of all possible thyroid function tests, the focus in this article is on the … Read More

Canine thyroid carcinoma

Liptak JM. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2007;22:75-81. Malignant thyroid carcinomas are relatively common in dogs. The majority of tumors are unilateral and nonfunctional. Before deciding on treatment options, it is important to determine whether the tumor is freely moveable … Read More

Tertiary hypothyroidism in a dog

Shiel RE, Acke E, Puggioni A, et al.  Ir Vet J 2007;60:88-93. : A nine-year-old male entire Labrador was diagnosed with pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Following seven months of successful mitotane therapy, the dog presented with marked weight gain, seborrhoea and … Read More

Pediatric endocrinology

Greco DS. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2006;36:549-556, vi. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affecting puppies and kittens from birth until 6 months of age may manifest as clinical problems related to growth or to water metabolism (polydipsia and … Read More

Thyroid Storm In Cats: Fact Or Fiction

Ward CR. in YES. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2006;456-458. Thyroid storm is a syndrome described in human medicine to define a multi systemic disorder resulting from organ exposure to excessive levels of thyroid hormone.  This form of acute thyrotoxicosis … Read More

Thyroid disorders in the geriatric patient

Meeking SA. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2005;35:635-653. Thyroid disorders are common in older pets. They often present a diagnostic challenge, and reaching a definitive diagnosis can be difficult or impossible in some cases. It is important for … Read More

Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog

Grubor B, Haynes JS Vet Pathol 2005;42:84-87. An adult male mixed breed dog developed pain, on swallowing, that lasted for 1 week. Physical exam and radiographs revealed a subcutaneous mass in the cervical area and three metastatic nodules in the … Read More


Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Hypothyroidism In: Feldman EC,Nelson RW, eds. Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd ed. Ph

Feline hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis)

Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Feline Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis) In: Feldman EC,Nelson RW, eds. Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2004/09;152-218.

Canine Thyroid Tumors and Hyperthyrodism

Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Canine Thyroid Tumors and Hyperthyrodism In: Feldman EC,Nelson RW, eds. Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2004/09;219-250.

Hypocalcemia and Primary Hypoparathyroidism

Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Hypocalcemia and Primary Hypoparathyroidism In: Feldman EC,Nelson RW, eds. Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2004/09;716-742.

Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter in toy fox terriers

Fyfe JC, Kampschmidt K, Dang V, et al. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:50-57. Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter was observed to segregate as a simple autosomal recessive trait in Toy Fox Terriers (TFTs). Neonatal affected pups exhibited inactivity, abnormal hair coat, … Read More

Characterization of the feline thyroglobulin promoter

Blackwood L, Onions DE, Argyle DJ. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2001;20:185-201. The feline thyroglobulin promoter was identified by a combination of standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, using primers designed according to regions of homology in published sequences from other species, … Read More

Endocrinopathies. Thyroid and adrenal disorders

Merchant SR, Taboada J. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1997;27:1285-1303. This article focuses on common adrenal and thyroid diseases in the geriatric patient consisting of hypothyroidism in the dog, hyperthyroidism in the cat, and hyperadrenocorticism in the dog … Read More

Trisomy 18 in a canine thyroid adenoma

Reimann N, Nolte I, Bonk U, et al.  Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1996;90:154-156. A canine thyroid adenoma showing trisomy 18 as the sole clonal cytogenetic abnormality (9 of 30 analyzed metaphases) is reported. Because trisomies are a recurrent cytogenetic finding in … Read More

Immunity and the endocrine system

Greco DS, Harpold LM. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:765-782. In conclusion, interaction between the immune and endocrine systems is highly complex. Generally, abnormalities of T suppressor cells, a result of HLA antigen genetic abnormalities, result in autoimmunity … Read More

Surgical therapy of the thyroid

Flanders JA. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:607-621. The surgical treatment of thyroid cancer in the cat involves excision of one or both thyroid glands while sparing at least one parathyroid gland. The most common postoperative complication of … Read More

Epidemiology of thyroid diseases of dogs and cats

Scarlett JM. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:477-486. Data regarding the epidemiology of the thyroid diseases in companion animals are sparse. Published studies providing information regarding the epidemiology of canine hypothyroidism and thyroid neoplasia and feline hyperthyroidism are … Read More

Update on diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism

Ferguson DC. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:515-539. Until a clinically useful canine TSH assay is available, a valid test of thyroid hypofunction should (1) take into consideration valid (or at least predictive) measurement of the free T4 … Read More

Thyroid hormone metabolism. A comparative evaluation

Kaptein EM, Hays MT, Ferguson DC. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:431-466. Knowledge of thyroid hormone and iodide metabolism is derived from a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies in a variety of mammalian species including … Read More

Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease

Johnson CA. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:509-514. Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders … Read More

Neurologic manifestations of thyroid disease

Jaggy A, Oliver JE. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:487-494. Animals with polyneuropathy associated with primary hypothyroidism have clinical neurologic signs that range from peripheral vestibular signs, lower motor neuronal deficits, laryngeal paralysis, to megaesophagus; however, a few … Read More

Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992)

Panciera DL. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1994;204:761-767. Sixty-six dogs with hypothyroidism were identified from dogs examined over a 5-year period. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed only if the dog had a low, resting serum thyroxine concentration and serum thyroxine … Read More

Selective parathyroidectomy of the dog

Finco DR, Brown SA, Ferguson DC, et al. Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire 1993;57:288-292. Selective parathyroidectomy (PTX) is preferred to thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) when specific effects of parathyroid hormone depletion are being studied. However, because … Read More

Congenital hypothyroidism in a boxer dog

Mooney CT, Anderson TJ. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1993;34:31-35. Congenital central hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a one-year-old boxer dog. The dog was presented for investigation of lameness, lethargy and obesity. Survey skeletal radiographs revealed delayed bone maturation and epiphyseal … Read More

Immunocytochemistry of canine thyroid tumors

Leblanc B, Parodi AL, Lagadic M, et al. Vet Pathol 1991;28:370-380. Immunocytochemical studies using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method with commercial antibodies against thyroglobulin, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuron specific enolase (NSE), somatostatin, and neurotensin were performed on 38 Bouin-fixed, paraffin-embedded … Read More

Thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the dog and cat

Birchard SJ. Probl Vet Med 1991;3:277-289. Thyroidectomy has become a fairly common surgical procedure in small animals because of the increasing incidence of thyroid tumors. Surgical removal of the thyroid gland can be routine or quite challenging, depending on the … Read More

Thyroid tumours in the dog

Sullivan M, Cox F, Pead MJ, et al. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1987;28:505-512. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features of 30 thyroid tumours in the dog are described. Ten tumours were considered suitable for surgical removal and in a … Read More

The Clinico-Pathological Aspect of Thyroid Disease in the Dog and Cat

Meier H, Clark ST. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin 1958;5:120-128. Zusammenfassung Das klinisch-pathologische Bild von Schilddrüsenerkrankungen bei Hund und KatzeTeil II: Klinische Erscheinungen * 1Bei der klinischen Diagnose ist wegen ihrer Häufigkeit stets auch auf Schilddrüsenerkrankungen zu achten; negative Palpationsbefunde sind weit … Read More

Carcinoma of Ectopic Thyroid in a Dog

Walsh KM, Diters RW. Journal of American Animal Hospital Association 1984;20:665-668. The differential diagnoses for heart base mass include aortic body chemodectoma, ectopic thyroid tumor, ectopic parathyroid tumor, mesothelioma, cardiac myxoma, and lymphadenopathy. The inci- dence of ectopic thyroid neoplasms … Read More

Unilateral thyroid neoplasm in a cat

O’Brien SE, Riley JH, Hagemoser WA. Vet Rec 1980;107:199-200. An aged cat with a thyroid neoplasm showed clinical signs and had laboratory data and post mortem findings similar to those observed in human and canine patients afflicted with hyperthyroidism. Because … Read More

Canine medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

Patnaik AK, Lieberman PH, Erlandson RA, et al. Vet Pathol 1978;15:590-599. An 8-year-old male Irish Terrior dog and a male St. Bernard dog each had a thyroid medullary carcinoma. The first dog was hypocalcemic before removal and with recurrence of … Read More

Adenomas and carcinomas of the canine and feline thyroid.

Leav I, Schiller AL, Rijnberk A, et al.  Am J Pathol 1976;83:61-122. NEOPLASMIS OF THE HUMNAN- THYROID are a well-studied clinical and pathologic entity. Numerous publications have dealt with their histologic classification and biology. Comparable data concerning thyroid neoplasms in … Read More

Canine thyroid neoplasms: epidemiologic features

Hayes HM, Jr., Fraumeni JF, Jr. J Natl Cancer Inst 1975;55:931-934. A retrospective study of medical records from twelve veterinary university hospitals-clinics yielded 144 dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of a thyroid neoplasm (25 adenomas and 119 carcinomas). Forty-five of … Read More

The thyroid gland–a review

Mason R, Wilkinson JS. Aust Vet J 1973;49:44-49. Diseases of the thyroid have been known for many thousands of years, having been recorded by the Ancient Chinese, and epidemic goitre still affects an estimated 200 million people. Most of the notorious … Read More