Safety of orally administered, USP-compliant levothyroxine sodium tablets in dogs

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Hare JE, Morrow CMK, Caldwell J, et al.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2017.

The safety of synthetic levothyroxine sodium tablets (Thyro-Tabs(R) Canine; LLOYD, Inc.) in dogs was evaluated in a randomized, sham-dose controlled, parallel-group study. Young, healthy, euthyroid Beagle dogs were randomized into four groups (four females and four males per group) and received single daily doses of 0x, 2x (0.044 mg/kg), 6x (0.132 mg/kg), or 10x (0.22 mg/kg) the labeled starting dose of 0.022 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 182 days. Every 2 weeks, physical examinations, electrocardiology examinations, and sample collections for thyroid panel, hematology, serum biochemistry, coagulation panel, and urinalysis were performed. At the end of the study, the dogs were euthanized and full necropsies performed. The most overt finding was the expected dose-dependent increase in serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine with dose-dependent suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis as evidenced by decreased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations, decreased thyroid+parathyroid/body weight ratios, and a trend for decreased pituitary weight/brain weight ratios. Clinical signs of thyrotoxicosis (excitation, tachypnea, tachycardia) in the treated dogs were sporadic with no dose-response relationship. Other findings statistically associated with levothyroxine treatment were generally mild and not clinically important. In summary, doses of levothyroxine sodium up to 10x the labeled starting dose were well tolerated in healthy dogs.