Occipital Dysplasia
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EtiologyOccipital dysplasia is a congenital abnormality of the formation of the occipital bones of the cranium. The most common manifestation of this condition is an underdeveloped occipital bone leading to a dorsoventrally enlarged ("keyhole shaped") foramen magnum.... Read More

Caudal Occipital Malformation Syndrome – COMS
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EtiologyPhenotypic selection has led to variability in canine skull shape. The brachycephalic phenotype was selected initially for its strong bite force. Later, breeds with round heads and foreshortened noses were desired because their facial features... Read More

Brain Infarction – Nonhemorrhagic
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EtiologyNonhemorrhagic infarctions, otherwise called ischemic infarctions, are the result of the acute interruption of blood flow to an area within the brain. The usual cause for a nonhemorrhagic infarction is the occlusion of an intracranial... Read More

Hydranencephaly
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EtiologyHydranencephaly is a congenital malformation of the brain in which the cerebral hemisphere(s) are absent to varying degrees. Hydranencephaly is an extreme form of porencephaly, a condition in which large cystic regions develop within the cerebral... Read More

Aspergillosis – nasal

EtiologyAspergillosis is the result of infection by one of several different species of the saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus. While there are hundreds of different species of Aspergillus, the most common causes for infections of the dog and cat are Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus … Read More

Brain Infarction – Hemorrhagic

EtiologyHemorrhagic infarctions (otherwise known as intracerebral hemorrhage or cerebral bleed) are the result of spontaneous hemorrhage within the brain. Underlying conditions that predispose to hemorrhagic infarctions include hypertension, aneurysms and brain tumors. Hemorrhagic infarctions differ from nonhemorrhagic infarctions (otherwise called ischemic infarctions), … Read More

Brain Infarction – Nonhemorrhagic

EtiologyNonhemorrhagic infarctions, otherwise called ischemic infarctions, are the result of the acute interruption of blood flow to an area within the brain. The usual cause for a nonhemorrhagic infarction is the occlusion of an intracranial artery by a thromboembolism. Nonhemorrhagic infarctions … Read More

Caudal Occipital Malformation Syndrome – COMS

EtiologyPhenotypic selection has led to variability in canine skull shape. The brachycephalic phenotype was selected initially for its strong bite force. Later, breeds with round heads and foreshortened noses were desired because their facial features resembled those of human infants. … Read More

Ectopic Ureter

EtiologyEctopic ureters are a congenital condition that occur when the embryonic mesonephric and metanephric duct systems do not develop normally. The metanephric duct eventually develops into the ureter. In patients with ectopic ureters, the metanephric duct originates in an abnormal location or migrates in an … Read More

Hydranencephaly

EtiologyHydranencephaly is a congenital malformation of the brain in which the cerebral hemisphere(s) are absent to varying degrees. Hydranencephaly is an extreme form of porencephaly, a condition in which large cystic regions develop within the cerebral hemispheres. PathophysiologyThe abnormal development of, or … Read More

Hydrocephalus – Congenital

EtiologyThe term hydrocephalus is derived from the greek “hydro” for water and “cephalus” for head. As such the condition is one in which there is an increased accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the intracranial cavity. Hydrocephalus is considered congenital … Read More

Meningioma – intracranial

EtiologyMeningiomas are tumors that arise from the thin membranous layer surrounding the central nervous system called the meninges. Specifically meningiomas arise from the arachnoid “cap” cells of the arachnoid villi in the meninges. Meningiomas are the most common brain tumor in … Read More

Meningioma – orbital

EtiologyMeningiomas are tumors that arise from the thin membranous layer surrounding the central nervous system called the meninges. Specifically, primary orbital optic nerve meningiomas arise from the cap cells of the arachnoid surrounding the intra-orbital portion of the optic nerve. Meningiomas tend … Read More

Meningioma – spinal

EtiologyMeningiomas are tumors that arise from the thin membranous layer surrounding the central nervous system called the meninges. Specifically meningiomas arise from the arachnoid “cap” cells of the arachnoid villi in the meninges. Meningiomas tend to occur in older animals. Large … Read More

Occipital Dysplasia

EtiologyOccipital dysplasia is a congenital abnormality of the formation of the occipital bones of the cranium. The most common manifestation of this condition is an underdeveloped occipital bone leading to a dorsoventrally enlarged (“keyhole shaped”) foramen magnum. In patients with this condition … Read More

Pituitary Macroadenoma

EtiologyA pituitary adenoma is a benign, neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells of the pituitary gland. These cells typically demonstrate both autonomous growth and function. The most common pituitary adenomas in veterinary medicine are microscopic tumors of the basophilic or chromophobic cells of … Read More