Wouda RM, Hocker SE, Higginbotham ML.
Combining conventional cytotoxic maximum tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy with low-dose metronomic and/or anti-angiogenic agents is a exciting area of oncologic research. The objective of this study was to establish the MTD, safety and adverse event (AE) profile of 1 such drug combination. This prospective phase I dose-finding clinical trial assumed an open-label 3 + 3 cohort design. Client-owned dogs with 1 or more cytologically and/or histologically confirmed and macroscopically measurable, naive or recurrent, malignant tumours, were enrolled. No preference for tumour histology, grade or stage was expressed. Toceranib was administered at a dose of 2.75 mg kg(-1) by mouth (PO) every other day (EOD), and carboplatin administered intravenously (IV) every 21 days at a starting dose of 200 mg m(-2) . A total of 25% dose escalation was proposed for carboplatin, to a maximum of 300 mg m(-2) . AEs were graded according to the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group’s common terminology criteria for AEs (VCOG-CTCAE). Grade 3 haematologic or gastrointestinal AEs were nominated dose-limiting. Response to therapy was evaluated according to the VCOG’s revised RECIST criteria. Eleven dogs were enrolled. Tumour histologies included sinonasal carcinoma, osteosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, melanoma and apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma. MTDs of carboplatin and toceranib were identified as 200 mg m(-2) IV every 21 days and approximately 2.75 mg kg(-1) PO EOD, respectively. The dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenia. Two dogs experienced a partial response, and 6 maintained stable disease. Combination carboplatin and toceranib chemotherapy was well-tolerated. Clinical benefit was observed in most cases. This protocol warrants further investigation in phase II/III trials.