Grimm JB, Grimm KA, Kneller SK, et al.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001;42:458-462.
The effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidine and butorphanol (MB), and medetomidine, butorphanol, atropine (MBA) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined in six dogs as measured by 99m-Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) nuclear scintigraphy. Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate were measured at regular time intervals before, during, and after GFR calculations. The mean GFR measurement following MB was significantly greater (4.44 ml/min/kg) than following MBA (3.82 ml/min/kg) or saline treatment (3.41 ml/min/kg). There was no significant difference between the mean GFR measurements following MBA injection and following saline injection. Diastolic and mean arterial pressures following MBA injection were significantly higher than the values recorded after either MB or saline alone. Heart rate following MB administration was significantly lower than that recorded for dogs receiving MBA or saline alone. The results of this study indicate that the administration of medetomidine in combination with butorphanol significantly increases total GFR in healthy dogs, while the administration of the combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and atropine does not.