Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis in six dogs: MRI, CSF and histological findings, treatment and outcome

Roynard P, Behr S, Barone G, et al.

The Journal of small animal practice 2012;53:543-548.

Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis has been described in humans as a rare, chronic progressive non-specific inflammatory and fibrotic disease of the dura mater. This is a case series of six canine cases of presumptive or confirmed intracranial idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. These dogs were included in this retrospective study, based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. All presented with pachymeningeal thickening and enhancement without involvement of the leptomeninges on magnetic resonance imaging and no underlying cause identified on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, complete blood count, serum biochemistry and infectious disease titres. Histopathological examination was available in one case. Response to immunomodulatory treatment (corticosteroids and cytosine arabinoside) was achieved in five cases. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis for dogs with pachymeningeal thickening on magnetic resonance imaging and no identified underlying cause. The prognosis appears to be fair to poor.