Effect of a Limited Iodine Diet on Iodine Uptake by Thyroid Glands in Hyperthyroid Cats

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Scott-Moncrieff J.C., Heng H.G., Weng H.Y., et al.

J Vet Intern Med, 2015. 29(5): p.1322-6.

 

BACKGROUND: The effect of feeding a limited iodine diet on radioactive iodine uptake in the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine how feeding limited dietary iodine affects radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. ANIMALS: Eight geriatric cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. METHODS: Prospective study of eight client owned hyperthyroid cats fed a commercially available iodine limited diet for 6 months. Clinical signs were evaluated and TT4 and fT4 were measured during consumption of the diet. Uptake of (123)I was determined before and 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. RESULTS: Clinical signs of hyperthyroidism resolved in all cats, but there was no significant increase in body weight. TT4 and fT4 decreased into the reference range by 8-16 weeks in all cats. Mean TT4 before consumption of the diet was 9.7 mug/dL (SD 5.2) and after consumption of the diet was 3.1 mug/dL (SD 0.9). Scintigraphy revealed unilateral uptake of isotope in 5 cats and bilateral uptake in 3 cats. Mean percentage uptake of (123)I by the thyroid gland at 8 hours after isotope administration was 16.2 (SD 11.8) before diet consumption and 34.6 (SD 11.7) 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. The percentage increase was variable between cats (38-639%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Limited iodine diets increase iodine uptake in the autonomous thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. Further studies are necessary to determine if consumption of a limited iodine diet changes sensitivity of the thyroid gland to (131)I treatment.