Pees M, Pees K, Kiefer I.
Seven normal koi (Cyprinus carpio) and seven koi with negative buoyancy were examined using computed tomography (CT) to assess the swim bladder. The volume of the swim bladder was calculated in all animals. In the healthy koi there was a statistical correlation (r = 0.996) between body mass and swim bladder volume with volume (ml) being related to body mass according to the formula 4.9 +/- 0.054 x BM (g). In all koi with buoyancy problems, the gas volume of the swim bladder was reduced. Additionally, fluid was found within the swim bladder in three of the abnormal koi. CT proved to be a quick noninvasive technique for the examination of the swim bladder in koi.