Zarelli M, Shiel R, Gallagher B, et al.
A seven-month-old Cocker Spaniel had a cough, acute lethargy, decreased responsiveness, and episodes of hyperexcitability. There were bilateral generalized increased lung sounds, bilateral episcleral hemorrhage, and systemic hypertension. Prolonged buccal mucosal bleeding time and elevated D-dimer concentrations were detected. Radiographically, there was a generalized moderate unstructured interstitial pattern. In thoracic CT images, there was a diffuse moderate hyperattenuating appearance of the bronchial walls and interstitium and diffuse areas of moderate bronchiectasis. The brain CT images were characterized by marked hyperattenuating well-defined masses. In addition, there were smaller hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating masses scattered throughout the cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. A zinc sulphate flotation test confirmed large numbers of Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae. Despite therapy the dog continued to deteriorate and underwent euthanasia. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of multiple intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Angiostrongylosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in dogs presenting with neurologic signs consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage.