Rozear L, Tidwell AS.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003;44:155-164.
Abdominal computed tomography (CT) using a protocol designed for evaluation of the ureters was performed on six normal purpose-bred research dogs. After noncontrast CT, a postcontrast scan was performed 3 min post midpoint of injection of 400 mgI/kg body weight of diatrizoate meglumine/sodium. Ureteral and ureterovesicular junction anatomy were readily assessed with minimal patient preparation. The ureters were similar in size to reported values and the renal pelvis, ureter, and ureterovesicular junction were easily identified on both noncontrast and contrast-enhanced scans. There was a significant relationship between bladder volume and interureterovesicular junction distance but not between bladder volume and ureterovesicular junction to internal urethral orifice distance. A reliable bony landmark for the identification of the internal urethral orifice could not be determined. The results of this preliminary study of normal anatomy should facilitate the clinical use of CT in the evaluation of ureteral disease (e.g., ureteral ectopia).